A 65-year-old Gujarati man has been found to have EMM negative, the first unique blood type in the country. EMM Negative is the world’s rarest blood type. The Gujarati man is the tenth individual in the world to have the rare blood type.
The 65-year-old Rajkot resident needed surgery after suffering a heart attack the previous year. However, when the patient’s blood was tested by medical professionals, neither Rajkot nor Ahmedabad was able to match it with anyone.
After that, the blood sample was transferred to a lab in New York for analysis. The researchers concluded that the blood type was AB+ with an EMM ‘negative’ frequency after a year. The patient passed away last year of natural causes in the meantime.
Antibodies against EMM antigens form in the body on their own. Rajkotupdates.news:EMM Negative A Rare Blood Group Found In Rajkot Man 10th Such Case Worldwide. There are nine people in the world with the blood type EMM negative that are worldwide registered. A tenth Gujarati has now been added to the list.
A Gujarati Man With A Rare Blood Type Was Discovered
Rajkotupdates.news:EMM Negative A Rare Blood Group Found In Rajkot Man 10th Such Case Worldwide. The world’s rarest blood group, EMM Negative, was discovered to be present in the individual. A 65-year-old man from Gujarat suffered from a heart condition.
The human body contains 42 different kinds of blood systems, including the A, B, O, Rh, and Duffy systems. 375 different types of antigens contain considerable amounts of EMM.
Emm is the name of the 42nd blood group system. Only a few people have homozygous PIGG gene defective mutations, which results in the Emm- phenotype. During routine blood type and crossover tests, anti-Emm antibodies that are naturally present in these individuals are usually discovered. These antibodies may cause acute hemolytic reactions linked to transfusions.
Rajkotupdates. news: O, A, B, and AB are the most typical blood types to be found in human bodies, according to Zalak Patel, a transfusion medicine specialist at the Red Cross Society in Ahmedabad. There are around 350 antigens associated with red cells and over 40 different blood systems, including Rh and Duffy.
Although EMM is a frequent high-frequency antigen, Patel found that this patient’s blood did not contain EMM. The body creates antibodies against EMM antigens on its own. There are nine people with blood type EMM negative who are officially registered globally. There is now a tenth Gujarati on the list.
Opinion of Medical Director Ripal Shah Regarding EMM Negative Blood
According to Ripal Shah, Medical Director of Prathama Laboratory in Ahmedabad, after a cross-check with 40 to 50 samples the facility had on hand, the patient had the AB+ blood group. “We searched every avenue in India to find a blood match for him.
His blood had a peculiar smell about it, I thought. We also contrasted his blood with blood samples from his kids. Even so, it didn’t work out”. Therefore, the sample was sent to New York.
For more than a year, they couldn’t come to a decision. The COVID-19 pandemic also impacted the Rajkotupdates.news:EMM Negative A Rare Blood Group Found In Rajkot Man 10th Such Case Worldwide process’s delay. According to Shah, the doctors gave him medicine to increase his hemoglobin level as they waited. Also, as per rajkotupdates.news, Despite the patient’s hemoglobin level increasing, the surgeon was unable to proceed since the patient was not prepared. He was COVID-19-infected and went away peacefully a month ago.
Type Of Blood Emm-Negative
Rajkotupdates.news:EMM Negative A Rare Blood Group Found In Rajkot Man 10th Such Case Worldwide.
Currently, only 10 individuals worldwide with specific blood groups do not have EMM frequencies in their blood, distinguishing them from typical humans. The rarest blood types cannot receive blood from other blood types, even O+, since they are incompatible with them.
Some Features Of Emm-Negative Blood
The Emm red blood cell (RBC) antigen has been given the designation 901008 in the high-incidence antigen 901 series of the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).
Rajkotupdates.news:EMM Negative A Rare Blood Group Found In Rajkot Man 10th Such Case Worldwide which is originally discovered in 1973, anti-Emm was originally identified in 1987 in four unrelated people who shared a widely reactive RBC alloantibody, or proband.
Eight Emm probands of diverse ethnicities are known at this point. In the absence of exposure to allogeneic RBCs, the majority of patients were men who presented with IgM and/or IgG antibodies.
The one person who received a transfusion was reported to have experienced a clinically serious acute hemolytic transfusion response. Due to a somatic mutation in phosphatidylinositol glycan A (PIGA), anti-Emm does not react with RBCs from people with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) type III, which lack glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
According to this finding, Emm is situated on a GPI-linked protein. Through post-translational modification in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), more than 150 proteins are GPI-anchored.
There are 27 known genes required for GPI-anchor biosynthesis, while the production of the GPI-anchor alone involves 11 stages and more than 15 genes. Recessive abnormalities in 21 of the 27 genes implicated in the GPI-anchor pathway have been documented to cause GPI deficiency.
These comprise the numerous PIG (phosphatidylinositol glycans) (PIGA-PIGZ) genes involved in the biosynthesis of GPI (phosphatidylinositol glycans) and the PGAP genes responsible for the modification of the GPI anchor.
There have been reports of neurological abnormalities linked to mutations in genes implicated in the GPI anchor pathway, including seizures, brain atrophy, hypotonia, and developmental delay or intellectual disability.